Spread in US



1981 Gay Cancer • 1982 Haitians Hemophyliacs • 1983 AIDS Prejudice • 1984 Virus • 1985 Rock Hudson, Saliva OK • 1986 T-Cells AZT
1987 Reagan• 1988 Macrophages • 19891990 Ryan White, Condoms in School• 1991 Sex Drugs & Aids, Magic Johnson
1992 Arthur Ashe• 1993 Needles, AZT resistance• 19941995 #1 killer of young adults• 19961997 CCR5, Cocktails
1998 Death Rates, Plunge Cocktail Side Effects • 19992000 China• 2001 Free care in Botswana •2004 Inate Immunity found in Monkeys • 2008 First Person Cured


Progression to AIDS

The virus begins attacking macrophages but switches to the helper T-cellsprogression of AIDsMHC to T cell

progression of infectionsTcell count and Viral loadfrom UCSF


A graphic of HIV source unknown

HIV escaping a helper T cell from Scientific American

Life Cycle




cells alive shows stages of infection of a cell and points of drug sensitivity

cells alive shows stages of infection of a cell and points of drug sensitivity




The reverse transcriptase enzyme is very nonselective and recognizes AZT as an Adenosine This drug gets incorporated into the growing DNA chain and as was the case with acylovir elongation comes to a halt and the virus cannot replicate.

3-TC or epivir works in a similar fasion replacing cytidine in the growing DNA chain. There is a synergistic effect with AZT, as the virus is generally unable to mutate in ways that alow it to resist both drugs.

Ritonavir (right) is one of the protease inhibitors. By binding to and blocking the HIV protease this drug prevents the virus from processing the proteins it makes. By keeping the amount of virus low it prevents HIV from developing resistance to the entire cocktail.

side effects

Protease and Inhibitor

Natural Resistance

Cell Protein Gives Monkeys Innate Immunity to H.I.V.