ORGANIC GROUPS

 

Nonpolar or Hydrophobic

# of Carbons

Group

Name

Example

1

-CH3



Methyl (Formyl)

 

 

Methane

2

-CH2-CH3


Ethyl  (acetyl)

Ethane

3

-CH2-CH2-CH3

Propyl


Propane

4

-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3

Butyl


Butane

5

-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3

Pentyl

Pentane

6

-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3

Hexyl

Hexane

Polar

 

 


Water

R-O-H

Alcohol

ends in -ol


Methanol

 

R-NH2

R-NH3+

Amine

ends in -ine


Dopamine
electrostatic surface

Carbonyl

ends in -one

Aldehyde (if on end carbon)

ends in -al


Formaldehyde

 


Carboxylic Acid

ends in -ic acid

or -ate


Acetic Acid

Amide


Aspartame

Ringed Structures

6 Carbons in a ring with alternating double and single bonds

benzene ring

Phenyl


DDT

Pentagon with 2 Nitrogens attached to Hexagon with 2 Nitrogens

Purine

Caffeine

Pentagon with 1 Nitrogen attached to Hexagon

Indole

Serotonin

3 Hexagons and a Pentagon

Steroid

Estrogen