site map appendix about course read first lab manual
read first
site map read first about course lab manual appendix

Thin Layer Chromatography

Melting Point

Simple Distillation

Column Chromatography

Infrared Spectroscopy


Solubility Testing



Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Classification Tests-Halides

Fractional Distillation



Two views of the reflux apparatus are shown below. Note that the condenser and flask are clamped separately. The heating mantle would be raised to heat the apparatus, as shown in the picture on the left. Because the entire apparatus is raised above the level of the table, the heating mantle can be lowered, as shown on the right, to cool the flask quickly. It is very important to include boiling stones in the flask and to plug the heating mantle into a Variac.

reflux apparatusreflux apparatus