OK HubelConwayCover

Original Research (peer reviewed)

A short annotated biography of discoveries


Lafer-Sousa R, Conway BR*, Kanwisher NG* (2016) Color-biased regions of the ventral visual pathway lie between face- and place-selective regions in humans, as in macaques. Journal of Neuroscience 36(5):1682-1697 *co-senior authors


Lafer-Sousa R, Hermann KL, Conway BR (2015) Striking individual differences in color perception uncovered by ‘the dress’ photograph. Current Biology doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.04.053 see review in The New York Times

Verhoef BE, Bohon KS, Conway BR (2015) Functional Architecture for Disparity in Macaque Inferior Temporal Cortex and Its Relationship to the Architecture for Faces, Color, Scenes, and Visual Field. Journal of Neuroscience 35(17), 6952-6968, see review by Aiden Murphy

Zaidi Q, Marshall J, Thoen H, Conway BR (2014) Evolution of neural computations: Mantis shrimp and human colour vision. iperception 5:492–496

Gagin G, Bohon KS, Butensky A, Gates M, Jiun-Yiing H, Lafer-Sousa R, Reitumetse PL, Qu J, Stoughton CM, Swanbeck SN, Conway BR (2014) Color detection thresholds in macaque monkeys and humans. Journal of Vision 14(8):12, 1–15

Lafer-Sousa R, Conway BR (2013) Parallel, multi-stage processing of colors, faces and shapes in macaque inferior temporal cortex. Nature Neuroscience Advanced Online Publication (Oct. 20, 2013)

HubelConwayCoverBinocular Stereoscopy in Visual Areas V-2, V-3, and V-3A of the Macaque Monkey
Hubel DH, Wiesel TN, Yeagle EM, Lafer-Sousa, Conway BR Cerebral Cortex 2013; doi: 10.1093/cercor/bht288
original cover image See the F1000 review by Kevan Martin

Conway BR (2013) Color signals through dorsal and ventral visual pathways. Vis Neurosci. 1-13

Conway BR, Rehding A (2013) Neuroaesthetics and the trouble with beauty. PLoS Biol 11:e1001504. pdf see Nature commentary

Stoughton CM, Lafer-Sousa R, Gagin G, Conway BR (2012) Psychophysical chromatic mechanisms in macaque monkey. J Neurosci 32:15216-15226.

Conway BR (2012) Color consilience: color through the lens of art practice, history, philosophy, and neuroscience. Annals of the New York Academy of Science. 1251:77-94

Lafer-Sousa R, Liu YO, Lafer-Sousa L, Wiest MC, Conway BR (2012) Color tuning in alert macaque V1 assessed with fMRI and single-unit recording shows a bias towards daylight colors. Journal of the Optical Society of America 29(5):657-70

Livingstone MS, Lafer-Sousa R, Conway BR (2011) Stereopsis and Artistic Talent: Poor Stereopsis Among Art Students and Established Artists. Psychol Sci. 22(3):336-8


Conway BR and Tsao (2009) Color-tuned neurons are spatially clustered according to color preference within alert macaque posterior inferior temporal cortex. PNAS (October 2009, electronic ahead of in print)

Conway BR, Stoughton CM (2009) Towards a neural representation for unique hues. Current Biology 19:R442-44

Stoughton CM, Conway BR (2008) Neural basis for unique hues. Current Biology 18:R698-R699.

See what Jay and Maureen Neitz had to say.

See John Mollon's commentary, and our response

Conway_2007Conway BR, Moeller S, and Tsao DT (2007) Specialized color modules in macaque extrastriate cortex. Neuron 56(3):560-73 [cover illustration caption] Supplementary Information

Conway BR and Livingstone MS (2007), Perspectives on Science and Art, Current Opinion in Neurobiology 17(4):476-82 [cover illustration]

Livingstone MS and Conway BR (2007) Contrast changes speed tuning and spatio-temporal receptive field structure of simple cells in alert macaque. Journal of Neurophysiology 97(1): 849-57.

Conway BR (2006) Stable Receptive Field Structure of Color Neurons in Primary Visual Cortex under Adapting and Non- adapting Conditions. Society for Imaging Science and Technology, CGIV Proceedings . pp 100-104.

Conway_2006Conway BR and Livingstone MS (2006) Spatial and Temporal Properties of Cone Signals in Alert Macaque Primary Visual Cortex (V1). Journal of Neuroscience 26(42):10826-10846. ... [cover illustration caption]

Pack CC, Conway BR , Born RT, Livingstone MS (2006) Spatiotemporal Structure of Nonlinear Subunits in Macaque
Visual Cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 26(3):893–907


Conway BR, Tsao DT (2005) Color Architecture in Alert Macaque Cortex Revealed by fMRI. Cerebral Cortex December, 28

Conway_2005Conway BR , Kitaoka A, Yazdanbakhsh A, Pack CC, Livingstone MS (2005) Neural basis for a powerful static motion illusion. Journal of Neuroscience 25(23):5651-5656 ...[cover illustration caption]

Livingstone MS and Conway BR (2004) Was Rembrandt Stereoblind? New England Journal of Medicine 351(12): 1264-1265

See what the Boston Globe had to say.

See what the New York Times had to say.

Conway BR and Livingstone MS (2003) Space-time maps and two-bar interactions of different classes of direction-selective cells in macaque V-1. Journal of Neurophysiology 89:2726-2742.

Livingstone MS and Conway BR (2003) Substructure of direction-selective receptive fields in macaque V1. Journal of Neurophysiology 89:2743-2759.

Tsao DT, Conway BR and Livingstone MS (2003) Receptive fields of disparity-tuned simple cells in macaque V1. Neuron 38:103-114

Conway BR, Hubel DH and Livingstone MS (2002) Color contrast in macaque V1. Cerebral Cortex 12:915-925. See what Nature Neuroscience Reviews had to say about this article.

Conway BR (2002) Neural Mechanisms of Color Vision. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Boston.

See what Robert Kentridge had to say about my book.

See what Focus magazine had to say about my book.

` ... need to reiterate that this is fascinating and important work and that the introduction is an especially enjoyable, clear, useful addition to the published experimtental work. ...would recommend this as a worthy addition to your office bookshelf or your library... '-Robert. Kentridge

` We now have the first clear demonstration of double opponent cells in the primate visual system. Given the temperament of those who work in the field of color vision there seems little doubt that heated debates will continue, but for the present at least, the subject seems to be as close to settled as such things can be in science. '-David Hubel, Nobel Laureat 1981


OKConway BR (2001) Spatial structure of cone inputs to color cells in alert macaque primary visual cortex (V-1). Journal of Neuroscience 21(8):2768-2783...[cover illustration caption] .

See what Anya Hurlbert had to say about this article.

See what Robert Shapley and Michael Hawken had to say about this article.

Conway BR, Boyd JD, Stewart TH and Matsubara JA (2000) The projection from V1 to extrastriate area 21a: a second patchy efferent pathway that colocalizes with the CO blob columns in cat visual cortex. Cerebral Cortex 10:149-159

Zhang YZ, Moheban D, Conway B, Bhattacharyya A, Stiles CD and Segal RA (2000) The role of dynamin mediated endocytosis in NGF signaling. Journal of Neuroscience 15:5671-8.


Invited Reviews/Book Chapters (peer reviewed)

Conway BR (2013) Book Review of Vision and Brain: How We Perceive the World (By J.V.Stone). Color Research & Application 38:176.

Zaidi Q, Conway BR (2014) Parallels between Mantis shrimp and human color vision. Scientific American Mind blog. (March 20, 2014).

Roe AW, Chelazzi L, Connor CE, Conway BR, Fujita I, Gallant J, Lu HD, Vanduffel W (2012) Towards a unified theory of visual area V4. Neuron 74:12-29.

Conway BR. (2012) Doing science making art. Trends in Cognitive Science, 16(6):310-312

Conway BR, Chatterjee S, Field GD, Horwitz GD, Johnson EN, Koida K, Mancuso K (2010) Advances in color science: from retina to behavior. Journal of Neuroscience 30(45):14955-14963

Conway BR (2009) Color vision, cones, and color-coding in the cortex. Neuroscientist 15(3):274-209

Conway BR (2007). Color Vision: Mice See Hue Too. Current Biology 17:R457-60

Conway BR and Livingstone MS (2005) A Different Point of Hue. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102(31):10761-2.

Conway BR and Livingstone MS (2003) The neural basis for color vision (In Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science, Lynn Nadel, Editor). pp 568-576. London: Nature Publishing Group.

Conway BR (2003) Colour Vision: A Clue to Hue in V2. Current Biology 13:R308-R310.

Conway BR and Livingstone MS (2006) Reverse correlation methods, in Principles and Practice of Clinical Electrophysiology (Heckenlively JR and Arden GB, Editors), 2nd Edition. The MIT Press: Boston. pp 461-471.



Conway et al. (1997) Response properties in area 17 of the alert cat. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.

Zhang YZ, Moheban D, Conway B, Bhattacharyya A, Stiles CD and Segal RA (1999) The role of dynamin ediated endocytosis in NGF signaling. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.

Conway BR (2000) Spatial organization of cone contributions to cortical color cells in alert macaque. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.

Livingstone MS, Conway BR and Tsao, DY (2000) What happens when it changes contrast when it moves? Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.

Livingstone MS, Conway BR (2001) 2-D substructure of directional receptive field in macaque V-1. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.

Conway BR, Livingstone MS (2001) Temporal color contrast in alert macaque primary visual cortex. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.

Conway BR, Tsao DY and Tootell R (2003) Fmri Evidence for a color architecture in macaque visual cortex. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 439.10

Livingstone MS and Conway BR (2004) The spatiotemporal slant of direction-selective simple cells depends on stimulus contrast. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 526.3

Conway BR and Livingstone MS (2004) The physiological basis for Kitaoka's powerful static motion illusion. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 526.22

Conway BR , Krishnan N, and Livingstone MS (2005) Spatial structure of linear and nonlinear cone inputs to double-opponent color cells in alert macaque V1. 743.11. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.

Conway BR and Tsao DY (2007) Specialized color modules in alert macaque extrastriate cortex. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.

Conway BR (2007) Specialized color cells in alert macaque V1 and beyond. Optical Society of America Annual Fall Meeting, Berkeley CA.

Conway BR , Stoughton CM and Tsao DY (2008) Unique hues and color columns in extrastriate color globs. 666.6. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.

Maynard* S, Conway BR and Goldman MG (2008) Modeling the transformation from LGN to V1 color-opponent receptive fields (P126). Computational Neuroscience Meeting, Portland OR

Lafer-Sousa* R, Kassam* Y, Kirkhart* C, MacConaghy* P, Phillosaint* M, Livingstone M, Hansen T and Conway BR (2008) Vision and Art: an undergraduate research-based course Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Annual Meeting Abstr.

Lafer-Sousa* R, Kassam* Y, Guo* M, Kaufman* S, Amoah* R, Flister* E, Reinagel P and Conway BR (2008) Implementation of a Rodent Model for Studies in Visual Processing, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Annual Meeting Abstr.

Fisher D, Conway BR, Goldman M (2009) Color Constancy of V1 Double Opponent Cells to Natural         Images. Cosyne (peer reviewed)

Fisher D, Conway BR, Goldman M (2009) Color sensitivity and color constancy of single-opponent and double-opponent cells to natural images. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 756.18

Conway BR and Hansen T (2009) Color-coding in posterior inferior temporal cortex (the V4 complex): fMRI mapping, single-unit recording and modeling, Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 119.2

Hansen T and Conway BR (2009) Modeling the effects of stimulus space on cell responses, ICVS, Braga Portugal.

Stoughton CM, Lafer-Sousa R, Conway BR (2011) Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans: Do monkeys see color better?, Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 799.13

Lafer-Sousa R, Stoughton CM, Conway BR (2011) Psychophysical evidence of multiple chromatic mechanisms in macaque monkey, Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 799.09

Yeagle E.M., Lafer-Sousa R., Hubel D.H., Wiesel T.N., Conway B.R. (2012). Localizing Hubel-Wiesel Recording Sites in Extrastriate Cortex, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience Annual Meeting Abstr.

Lafer-Sousa R, Conway BR (2013) Parallel, hierarchical processing of colors and shapes in macaque inferior temporal cortex. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 824.19

Conway BR, Yeagle EM, Lafer-Sousa R, Wiesel TN, Hubel DH (2013) Binocular stereoscopy in visual areas V-2, V-3, and V-3A of the macaque monkey: a contemporary analysis of Hubel and Wiesel’s unpublished recordings of cells sensitive to binocular depth. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 20.15SA

Romero MC, Bohon KS, Lafer-Sousa R, Conway BR (2014). Functional organization of colors, places and faces in alert macaque           frontal cortex. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.

Conway BR, Norman-Haignere S, Bohon KS, Gagin G, McDermott J, Kanwisher NG (2014) Comparing cortical pitch responses in humans and monkeys. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.

Conway BR, Norman-Haignere S, Kanwisher NG, McDermott JH (2014). Comparing Cortical Pitch Responses in Humans and Monkeys. 5th International Conference on Auditory Cortex - Towards a Synthesis of Human and Animal Research (Magdeburg, DE)

Gagin G, Bohon KS, Connelly J, Conway BR (2014) fMRI signal dropout in rhesus macaque monkey due to chronic contrast agent administration. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.

Lafer-Sousa R, Conway BR, Kell AJE, Feather J, Takahashi A, Kanwisher NG. (2014) Similar organization of the ventral visual pathway in humans and macaque monkeys: color regions sandwiched between face and scene regions Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.

Conway BR, Gagin G, Bohon KS, Butensky A, Gates M, Hu Y, Lafer-Sousa R, Pulumo R, Stoughton C, Swanbeck S, Qu J (2014) Color-detection thresholds in macaque monkeys and humans. Vision Sciences Society, 53.425

Lafer-Sousa R, Kell A, Takahashi A, Feather J, Conway BR, Kanwisher NG (2014) Parallel processing of   colors and faces in human ventral visual stream: functional evidence and technical challenges. Vision Sciences Society, 53.429

Invited Lectures

Seeing — Color. MIT CAST Symposium: Seeing, Sounding, Sensing (Cambridge MA, September 26, 2014)

Insanity, Genius, and the Creative Process, TEDx (Martha’s Vineyard, August 19, 2014)

What is Color? The Flame Challenge presented by Alan Alda, The World Science Festival (NYC, June 1, 2014)

Color, Art, Brain, Part I. Kenyon College (Gambier OH, March 24, 2014).

Color, Art, Brain, Part II. Columbus College of Art and Design (Columbus OH, March 25, 2014).

Neuroscience and Visual Art, Brown University, Cognition Neuroscience & the Arts (Providence RI, March 1, 2014)

The organization and operation of color circuits in inferior temporal cortex. Cambridge Research Systems (CRS) Lecture, Color Group of Great Britain annual meeting. (London UK, January 8, 2014)

Art and aesthetics: challenges for neuroscience. The art of perception/perception of art (Official satellite symposium of the European Conference on Visual Perception, Germany) (Delmenhorst DE, August 25, 2013)

Color in culture, art and neuroscience, Gallery Talk, Davis Museum, Wellesley College (Wellesley MA, April 11, 2013)

Color in V1 and beyond, SUNY (New York, NY, November 16, 2012)

Mechanisms of color in monkeys: psychophysics, imaging, neurophysiology, University of Illinois Chicago
             (Chicago IL, October 25, 2012)

Color consilience (Chris Comer Undergraduate Neuroscience Seminar), University of Illinois Chicago   
             (Chicago IL, October 24, 2012)

Mechanisms of color in monkey visual cortex, University of Montreal (Montreal PQ, October 4, 2011)

Neural mechanisms of color in V1 and beyond, Boston University (Boston MA, September 8, 2011)

Neural mechanisms of color, College of the Holy Cross (Worcester MA, March 15, 2011)

Seeing in Color, Harvard University, Department of Organismal and Evolutionary Biology, Feb. 9, 2011

Color: art practice and neuroscience. Columbus College of Art and Design, Feb. 7, 2011

Understanding color through art and neuroscience, Connecticut College, November 22, 2010

Session Chair, Advances in color science: from retina to behavior, Soc. for Neuroscience Minisymposum, 2010

Perspectives on Art and Science, Keynote address Medical College of Wisconsin, November 5, 2010

Neuroscience + Dance Brainwave, a conversation between choreographer Mark Morris and Bevil R. Conway, Rubin Museum of Art, NYC (February 17, 2010) reviewed by Noah Hutton of thebeautifulbrain.com

Panel Discussion Moderator, Brainscapes, Williams College, March 2010

Seeing in Color, Guest Lecture in Animal Behavior (Bence Olveczky and Naomi Pierce; Harvard Feb 2010)

Mechanisms of Color Constancy (Session Chair). Optical Society of America Annual Fall Meeting (Seattle, WA, September 2009)

Vision and Art, University of Washington, Department of Ophthalmology (Seattle, WA, September 2009)

Vision and the practice of making art (20th Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society, Braga, Portugal; July 24, 2009)

This is your brain on Art (Cambridge Center for Adult Education, Cambridge MA; May 8, 2009)

Constructing Color: from perception to neural mechanisms (Boston University, April 9, 2009)

Vision and the art of making pictures (Columbus College of Art and Design, March 4, 2009)

Neural mechanisms of color in V1 and beyond (Columbia University, December 18, 2008).

Dance: Movement in Space & Time, Society for Neuroscience Dialog with Mark Morris and Eve Marder (Nov 15, 2008) see Review in Science

Picture Puzzles. (TZA, Wellesley College Student Association, October 22, 2008).

Mechanisms of Color: V1 and beyond (Keynote address, Fall Vision Symposium, Medical College Wisconsin, September 19, 2008)

The practice of making pictures (Davis Museum Scholars Seminar, Wellesley College, July 28, 2008).

The brain’s mechanisms for color (Wellesley College Alumnae Association, June 7, 2008).

The Psychoneurology of the Photographic Arts (Philoctetes Organization, NYC, April 24, 2008). link to youtube

Color, Light, Vision and Art. Oakland University (Detroit, OH; April 1, 2008).

Constructing Color: neural mechanisms of color. Williams College (Williamstown, MA; February 14, 2008).

Color in V1 and Beyond. Northeastern University (Boston, MA; January, 2008).

Optic Nerve: vision and art practice. Columbus College of Art and Design (April 30, 2007)

Art and Brain: a discussion with Devorah Sperber. Brooklyn Museum of Art (May 6, 2007)

Stable receptive-field structure of color neurons in macaque V-1 under different viewing conditions. Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Leeds U.K.

The Neuroscience of Color, Keynote Address, Electric Power Research Institute Annual Meeting, Orlando , Florida

Interdisciplinary approaches to art and science. Wesleyan University , Middletown, CT

Vision and Art Practice. Sightlines: New England American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, MA

Color: the brain's remarkable invention. L'Oreal prize in Art and Science Symposium , Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

Beyond Illusion: Vision and Art and Aesthetics. Cognitive Science and the Arts, Harvard College , Cambridge , MA

Seeing seeing differently: a 3 day studio workshop. Lyme College of Fine Art, Lyme, CT, Summer 2005

Vision and Art. Harvard Alumni Association of Portland, Oregon, May 26, 2004

Visual Neurobiology and Art Practice. Arizona Art Institute, Tucson, Arizona, December 6, 2003

Vision and Art, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003

Vision and Art. Harvard Continuing Medical Education, Boston, MA, 2001

Can the brain tell us anything about beauty? American Center for Design, Miami April 6, 2001

Spatial structure of cone inputs to cortical colour cells, Cambridge University , UK, June 2001

Colour processing in primary visual cortex, Oxford University, UK, June 2001

Cone contributions to cortical colour cells, University of Newcastle on Tyne, UK, June 2001


Journals for which I peer-review articles

Cerebral Cortex

Current Biology

Journal of Neurophysiology

Journal of Neuroscience

Journal of Vision

Psychological Science

Vision Research