**What it does: **The Spearman Rho correlation
tells you the magnitude and direction of the association between two variables
that are on an interval or ratio scale.

**Where to find it:** Under the Analyze menu,
choose Correlations. Move the variables you wish to correlate into the "Variables"
box. Under the "Correlation Coefficients," be sure that the "Spearman"
box is checked off.

**Assumption: **

-Both variables are NOT normally distributed. You can check for normal distribution
with a Q-Q plot. If the variables are normally distributed, use a Pearson R
correlation.

**Hypotheses:**

Null: There is no association between the two variables.

Alternate: There is an association between the two variables.

*SPSS Output*

Following is a sample output of a Spearman Rho correlation between the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Assessing Anxiety Scale.

SPSS creates a correlation matrix of the two variables. All the information we need is in the cell that represents the intersection of the two variables.

SPSS gives us three pieces of information:

-the correlation coefficient

-the significance

-the number of cases (N)

The correlation coefficient is a number between +1 and -1. This number tells us about the magnitude and direction of the association between two variables.

The MAGNITUDE is the strength of the correlation. The closer the correlation is to either +1 or -1, the stronger the correlation. If the correlation is 0 or very close to 0, there is no association between the two variables. Here, we have a moderate correlation (r = -.392).

The DIRECTION of the correlation tells us how the two variables are related. If the correlation is positive, the two variables have a positive relationship (as one increases, the other also increases). If the correlation is negative, the two variables have a negative relationship (as one increases, the other decreases). Here, we have a negative correlation (r = -.392). As self-esteem increases, anxiety decreases.

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Susan Archambault

Psychology Department, Wellesley College

Created By: Nina Schloesser '02

Created On: July 31, 2000

Last Modified: July 31, 2000